Agricultural land and artificial landscapes
Cultivated or built-up areas under the overwhelming influence of human activity; the natural vegetation cover has been totally replaced as a result of agricultural practices, urbanization or industrialization. A natural flora and fauna subsists mainly in areas of extensive and traditional cultivation and dwelling. Wild plants may grow among crops, in hedges, along roads, on walls and in fallow fields. Many animals have, during the course of the past few thousand years, adapted to these man-created habitats.
Devillers P., Devillers-Terschuren J. & Vander Linden C., 2001. PHYSIS Palaearctic Habitat Classification Database. Updated to 10 December 2001. Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles. (Source)
Ellenberg, 1963, 1988; Knapp, 1973; Zohary, 1973; de Planhol, 1976; Ortuno and Ceballos, 1977; Bary-Lenger & al., 1979; Fuller, 1982; Ehrenreich & al., 1982; Chiappini, 1985b; Phillips, 1986; Way and Greig-Smith, 1987; Noirfalise, 1988; Barneschi, 1988; de Rougemont, 1989; Morrison, 1989; Oberdorfer, 1993b; Belder and Misonne, 1994, 1997; Scott and Jones, 1995.