2130 - Dunes côtières fixées à végétation herbacée (“dunes grises”)

Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (“grey dunes”)

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Fixed dunes, stabilised and colonised by more or less closed perennial grasslands and abundant carpets of lichens and mosses, from the Atlantic coasts (and the English Channel) between the Straits of Gibraltar and Cap Blanc Nez, and the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic. Also similar dunes occur along the coasts of the Black Sea. In the case of the thermo-Atlantic coast, it is logical to include Euphorbio Helichrysion (code 16.222 - thermo Atlantic as far as Brittany) and Crucianellion maritimae (code 16.223 - Strait of Gibraltar as far as the southern Atlantic near Cape Prior in Galicia). Sub-types
16.221 - Northern grey dunes with grass communities and vegetation from Galio-Koelerion albescentis (Koelerion albescentis), Corynephorion canescentis p., Sileno conicae-Cerastion semidecandri.
16.222 - Biscay grey dunes (Euphorbio-Helichrysion stoechadis): dunes on stabilised humus soil infiltrated by dwarf bushes, with Helichrysum stoechas, Artemisia campestris and Ephedra distachya.
16.223 - Thermo-Atlantic grey dunes (Crucianellion maritimae): suffrutescent communities on more or less stabilised soils low in humus of the thermo-Atlantic coasts with Crucianella maritima and Pancratium maritimum.
16.225 - Atlantic dune (Mesobromion) grasslands: various sandy coastal sites characterised by herbaceous vegetation in the form of calcicole mesoxerocline grasslands, poor in nitrogen, corresponding to the communities of Mesobromion found by the sea (penetration of aero haline species); dunal grasslands composed of species characteristic of dry calcareous grasslands (34.32).
16.226 - Atlantic dune thermophile fringes: Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei: Galio maritimi-Geranion sanguinei, Geranium sanguineum formations (34.4) on neutro basic soils rich in calcium and poor in nitrogen.
16.227 - Dune fine-grass annual communities: sparse pioneer formations (35.2, 35.3) of fine grasses rich in spring-blooming therophytes characteristic of oligotrophic soils (nitrogen poor sand or very superficial soils, or on xerocline to xerophile rocks) (Thero-Airion p., Nardo-Galion saxatile p.,Tuberarion guttatae p.)
16.22B - Pontic fixed dunes - fixed dunes of the coasts of the Black Sea
The vegetation may be a closed cover of grassland, sparse annual grassland on sand or dominated by mosses and lichen; the content of limestone (Ca2+) may vary greatly and is generally diminishing with age and succession towards brown dune systems (dune heathland).

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants: Aira spp., Anacamptis pyramidalis, Bromus hordeaceus, Carex arenaria, Cerastium spp., Corynephorus canescens, Erodium glutinosum, E. lebelii, Galium verum, Gentiana campestris, G. cruciata, Koeleria spp., Milium scabrum, Myosotis ramosissima, Ononis repens, Phleum arenarium, Polygala vulgaris var. dunensis, Silene conica, S. otites, Trifolium scabrum, Tuberaria guttata, Viola curtisii, V. rupestris var. arenaria; Mosses- Tortula ruraliformis; Lichens- Cladonia spp.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

16.221 to 16.227, 16.22B

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

United Kingdom classification: 16.221 -'SD12 Carex arenaria-Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris grassland', ‘SD8 Festuca rubra-Galium verum fixed dune grassland', ‘SD7 Ammophila arenaria-Festuca rubra semi-fixed dune community' and ‘SD11 Carex arenaria- Cornicularia aculeata dune community'. 16.226 - ‘SD9b Ammophila arenaria- Arrhenatherum elatius dune grassland Geranium sanguineum sub-community'. 16.227 - most likely, certain sub-communities of the type ‘SD7 Ammophila arenaria-Festuca rubra semi-fixed dune community' and ‘SD11 Carex arenaria-Cornicularia aculeata dune community'.
German classification: ‘1003 Dünenrasen (Graudüne)', ‘1003a Dünenpionierrasen mit einjähr. Vegetation (Thero-Airion)', ‘1003b Dünenrasen mit geschlossener Narbe u. überwieg. ausdauernden Arten (Graudüne)'.
Nordic classification: ‘4141 Corynephorus canescens-typ' and ‘4142 Festuca rubra-Hieracium umbellatum-typ'.

Remarques

There is a transition towards communities of Mesobromion (34.31 - 34) in the following cases: old mesophile grasslands of dune slacks and inner dunes (Anthyllido Thesietum), frequently in mosaic with communities of Salix repens and particularly developed on the west face of the dunes; grasslands with Himantoglossum hircinum of the dunes in the De Haan area.
Dune scrubs (16.25) and humid dune slacks (16.3) with distinct vegetation form closely knit complexes with grey dunes devoid of ligneous vegetation.

Bibliographie

Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)

Andersson, D. (1950). The Scanian sand vegetation - a survey. Bot. Not. 1950:145-172.

Curtis, T.G.F. (1991). The flora and vegetation of sand dunes in Ireland. In: A Guide to the Sand Dunes of Ireland (M.B. Quigley, Ed.). 42-46. European Union for Dune Conservation and Coastal Management.

Dargie, T.C.D. (1993). Sand dune vegetation survey of Great Britain. Part II Scotland. JNCC, Peterborough.

Doody, J.P. (1991). Sand Dune Inventory of Europe. JNCC, Peterborough and EUCC.

Meshinev, T, V. Velchev, A. Petrova, I. Apostolova, P. Vassilev,1994. Flora and vegetation of the dunes in the Sunny Beach Resort. Sofia, 59 pp.

Rivas-Martínez, S., Lousã, M., Díaz, T.E., Fernández-González, F. et Costa, J.C. (1990). La vegetación del sur de Portugal (Sado, Alentejo y Algarve). Itinera Geobot. 3. 5 - 126.

Tzonev, R., M. Dimitrov, V. Roussakova, 2005. Dune vegetation on the Bulgarian Black sea coast. Hacquetia, 4/1:7-32.