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4060 - Landes alpines et boréales

Alpine and Boreal heaths

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Small, dwarf or prostrate shrub formations of the alpine and sub-alpine zones of the mountains of Eurasia dominated by ericaceous species, Dryas octopetala, dwarf junipers, brooms or greenweeds; Dryas heaths of the British Isles and Scandinavia.
Sub-types :
31.41 - Alpide dwarf ericoid wind heaths. Loiseleurio-Vaccinion.
Very low, single-stratum, carpets of trailing azalea, Loiseleuria procumbens, prostate Vaccinium spp. or other prostate ericoid shrublets, accompanied by lichen, of high windswept, mostly
snowfree, localities in the alpine belt of the high mountains of the Alpine system.
31.42 - Acidocline alpenrose heaths. Rhododendro-Vaccinion.
Rhododendron spp.-dominated heaths of acid podsols in the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Dinarids, the Carpathians, the Balkan Range, the Pontic Range, the Caucasus and the Himalayan system,
often with Vaccinium spp., sometimes with dwarf pines.
31.43 - Mountain dwarf juniper scrub. Juniperion nanae, Pino-Juniperion sabinae p., Pino-Cytision purgantis p.
Usually dense formations of prostrate junipers of the higher levels of southern Palaearctic mountains.
31.44 - High mountain Empetrum-Vaccinium heaths. Empetro-Vaccinietum uliginosi.
Dwarf heaths dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium uliginosum, with Arctostaphylos alpina, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and lycopodes (Huperzia selago, Diphasiastrum alpinum), mosses (Barbilophozia lycopodioides, Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Rhythidiadelphus triquetrus) and lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cladonia
arbuscula, Cladonia rangiferina, Cladonia stellaris, Cladonia gracilis, Peltigera aphthosa) of the sub-alpine belt of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the Central Massif, the Jura, the
Northern Apennines, characteristic of relatively windswept, snow-free stations, in frostexposure situations that are, however, less extreme than those prevailing where communities of
31.41 dominate. Unlike the formations of 31.41, those of 31.44 are clearly two-layered.
31.45 - Boreo-alpine heaths
Alpine heaths of the highlands and islands of Scotland, alpine and lowland boreal heaths of Iceland, alpine heaths of boreal mountains, in particular of the mountains of Scandinavia, of the
Urals, of the mountains of Siberia, alpine heaths of Far Eastern mountains at, or just south of, the limits of the boreal zone, with Juniperus nana, Loiseleuria procumbens, Empetrum
hermaphroditum, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctostaphylos alpina and elements of Alpine flora.
31.46 - Bruckenthalia heaths.
31.47 - Alpide bearberry heaths. Mugo-Rhodoretum hirsuti p., Juniperion nanae p., i.a.
Mats of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi or Arctostaphylos alpina of the alpine, sub-alpine and locally, montane, belts of the Alps, the Pyrenees, the northern and central Apennines, the Dinarids, the
Carpathians, the Balkan Range, the Rhodopides (south to the Slavianka-Orvilos, the Menikion, the Pangeon, the Falakron and the Rhodopi), the Moeso-Macedonian mountains (including
Athos), the Pelagonides (south to the Greek Macedonian border ranges Tzena, Pinovon and Kajmakchalan) and Olympus, in the Thessalian mountains, mostly on calcareous substrates.
31.48 - Hairy alpenrose-erica heaths. Mugo-Rhodoretum hirsuti p.
Forest substitution heaths, treeline fringe formations and alpine heaths or mats of calcareous soils in the Alps and the Dinarides, with Rhododendron hirsutum, Rhododendron intermedium,
Rhodothamnus chamaecistus and Erica herbacea, often accompanied by Clematis alpina, Daphne striata, Daphne mezereum, Globularia cordifolia, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Rhododendron hirsutum and, mostly in the Austrian Alps, Erica herbacea are the most frequent dominants; other shrubs can locally play that role. Arctostaphylos spp.-dominated facies have, however, been included in 31.47.

Description (suite)

31.49 - Mountain avens mats
Dwarf heaths formed by mats of the woody Dryas octopetala in high Palaearctic mountains, in boreal regions and in isolated Atlantic coastal outposts.
31.4A - High mountain dwarf bilberry heaths
Vaccinium-dominated dwarf heaths of the sub-alpine belt of southern mountains, in particular, of the northern and central Apennines, the Balkan Range, the Helenides, the Pontic Range and
the Caucasus, with Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum s.l., Vaccinium vitis-idaea and, locally, Empetrum nigrum. They are richer in grassland species than the communities of 31.44
and often take the appearance of alpine grassland with dwarf shrubs. Vaccinium myrtillus also plays a much more dominant role, in lieu of Vaccinium uliginosum and Empetrum hermaphroditum.
31.4B - High mountain greenweed heaths
Low Genista spp. or Chamaecytisus spp. heaths of the sub-alpine, low alpine or montane belts of high southern nemoral mountains, in particular of the southern Alps, the Apennines, the
Dinarides, the southern Carpathians, the Balkan Range, the Moeso-Macedonian mountains, the Pelagonides, the northern Pindus, the Rhodopides, the Thessalian mountains.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants: 31.41 - Loiseleuria procumbens, Vaccinium spp.; 31.42 - Rhododendron ferrugineum; 31.44 - Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium uliginosum; 31.45 - Juniperus nana, Loiseleuria procumbens, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctostaphylos alpina; in Fennoscandia also Betula nana, Cassiope tetragona, Cornus suecica, Juniperus communis, Phyllodoce caerulea, Vaccinium myrtillus and Cladonia alpestris; 31.47 - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Arctostaphylos alpina; 31.48 - Rhododendron hirsutum, Rhododendron intermedium, Rhodothamnus chamaecistus and Erica herbacea; 31.49 - Dryas octopetala; 31.4A - Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum s.l., Vaccinium vitis-idaea; 31.4B - Genista radiata, G. holopetala, G. hassertiana, Chamaecytisus eriocarpus, C. absinthioides.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

31.4

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

United Kingdom classification: ‘H13 Calluna vulgaris-Cladonia arbuscula heath', ‘H14 Calluna vulgaris-Racomitrium lanuginosum heath', ‘H15 Calluna vulgaris-Juniperus communis ssp. nana heath', ‘H17 Calluna vulgaris Arctostaphylos alpinus heath', ‘H19 Vaccinium myrtillus-Cladonia arbuscula heath', ‘H20 Vaccinium myrtillus-Racomitrium lanuginosum heath' and ‘H22 Vaccinium myrtillus-Rubus chamaemorus heath'.
Nordic classification: ‘11 Snöfria vindhedar', ‘121 Hedvegetation på fattigt underlag', ‘122 Hedvegetation på rikt/kalkrikt underlag', ‘1311 Cassiope hypnoides-Salix herbacea typ', ‘1321 Salix polaris typ'.

Bibliographie

Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)

Haapasaari, M. (1988). The oligotrophic heath vegetation of northern Fennoscandia and its zonation. Acta Bot. Fennica 135:1-219.

Oksanen, L. et Virtanen, R. (1995).- Topographic, altitudinal and regional patterns in continental and suboceanic heath vegetation of northern Fennoscandia. Acta Bot. Fennica 153: 1-80.