1110 - Bancs de sable à faible couverture permanente d'eau marine

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Sandbanks are elevated, elongated, rounded or irregular topographic features, permanently submerged and predominantly surrounded by deeper water. They consist mainly of sandy sediments, but larger grain sizes, including boulders and cobbles, or smaller grain sizes including mud may also be present on a sandbank. Banks where sandy sediments occur in a layer over hard substrata are classed as sandbanks if the associated biota are dependent on the sand rather than on the underlying hard substrata.
“Slightly covered by sea water all the time” means that above a sandbank the water depth is seldom more than 20 m below chart datum. Sandbanks can, however, extend beneath 20 m below chart datum. It can, therefore, be appropriate to include in designations such areas where they are part of the feature and host its biological assemblages.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants:
North Atlantic including North Sea - Zostera sp., free living species of the Corallinaceae family. On many sandbanks macrophytes do not occur.
Central Atlantic Islands (Macaronesian Islands) - Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii. On many sandbanks free living species of Corallinaceae are conspicuous elements of biotic assemblages, with relevant role as feeding and nursery grounds for invertebrates and fish. On many sandbanks macrophytes do not occur.
Baltic Sea - Zostera sp., Potamogeton spp., Ruppia spp., Tolypella nidifica, Zannichellia spp., carophytes. On many sandbanks macrophytes do not occur.
Mediterranean - The marine Angiosperm Cymodocea nodosa, together with photophilic species of algae living on the leaves (more than 15 species, mainly small red algae of the Ceramiaceae family), associated with Posidonia beds. On many sandbanks macrophytes do not occur.
Animals:
North Atlantic including North Sea - Invertebrate and demersal fish communities of sandy sublittoral (e.g. polychaete worms, crustacea, anthozoans, burrowing bivalves and echinoderms, Ammodytes spp., Callionymus spp., Pomatoschistus spp., Echiichtys vipera, Pleuronectes platessa, Limanda limanda).
Central Atlantic Islands (Macaronesian Islands) - Fish, crustacean, polychaeta, hydrozoan, burrowing bivalves, irregular echinoderms.
Baltic Sea - Invertebrate and demersal fish communities of sandy sublittoral (fine and medium grained sands, coarse sands, gravely sands), e.g. polychaetes: Scoloplus armiger, Pygospio elegans, Nereis diversicolor, Travisia sp., e.g. bivalves: Macoma balthica, Mya arenaria, Cerastoderma sp., e.g. crustaceans: Crangon crangon, Saduria entomon, e.g. fish species: Platichthys flesus, Nerophis ophidion, Pomatoschistus spp., Ammodytes tobianus.
Mediterranean - Invertebrate communities of sandy sublittoral (e.g. polychaetes). Banks are often highly important as feeding, resting or nursery grounds for sea birds, fish or marine mammals.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

11.125, 11.22, 11.31, 11.333

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

French classification: ZNIEFF-MER: "Biocénose des sables fins de haut niveau", "Biocénose des sables fins bien calibrés".
German classification: "Sandbank der Ostsee (ständig wasserbedeckt)(040202a)", "Sandbank der Nordsee (ständig wasserbedeckt)(030202a)".
Barcelona Convention: "Biocenosis of fine sands in very shallow waters (III. 2. 1.) with facies with Lentidium mediterraneum (III. 2. 1. 1.)", "Biocenosis of well sorted fine sands (III. 2. 2.) with associations with Cymodocea nodosa on well sorted fine sands (III. 2. 2. 1.) and with Holophila stipulacela (III. 2. 2. 2), the latter considered determinant habitat in C. B.", "Biocenosis of coarse sands and fine gravels mixed by the waves (III. 3. 1.) with association with rhodolithes (III. 3. 1. 1), considered determinant habitat in the C. B.", "Biocenosis of coarse sands and fine gravels under the influence of bottom currents (also found in the Circalittoral) (III. 3. 2.). It is possible to find a facies and an association which are determinant habitats for C. B.: the maërl facies (= Association with Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatoliton calcareum), also found as facies of the biocenosis of coastal detritic (III. 3. 2. 1), and the association with rhodolithes (III. 3. 2. 2.)", "Biocenosis of infralittoral pebbles (III. 4. 1.) with facies with Gouania wildenowi (III. 4. 1. 1.), small teleostean which lives among pebbles."
Vegetationstyper i Norden (Påhlsson (ed.) 1994): "Zostera marina-typ (4.4.1.1)", "Ruppia maritima- typ (4.4.1.2)", "Chara-typ (6.3.3.1)", "Potamogeton pectinatus (6.3.2.2)".
Kustbiotoper i Norden (Nordiska Ministerrådet 2001): "Sandbottnar (7.7.1.2; 7.8.1.2; 7.8.4.2; 7.8.5.2; 7.8.6.7; 7.8.6.8; 7.8.6.9; 7.8.7.9; 7.8.7.10; 7.8.7.11; 7.9.1.1.; 7.9.2.1; 7.9.3.1; 7.9.4.1)."
HELCOM classification: "Sublittoral gravel bottoms. Banks with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.4.2.3)", "Sublittoral sandy bottoms. Banks with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.5.2.4)".
The National Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 03.02: Relevant types within "Sublittoral coarse sediments (SCS), Sublittoral sands (SSA) and Sublittoral macrophytes communities (SMP)".
EUNIS classification: Relevant types within "A5.1 Sublittoral coarse sediment, A5.2 Sublittoral sand, A5.4 Sublittoral mixed sediments, A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment".

Remarques

Sandbanks can be found in association with mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide (1140), with Posidonia beds (1120) and reefs (1170). Sandbanks may also be a component part of habitat 1130 Estuaries and habitat 1160 Large shallow inlets and bays.

Informations du Manuel d'interprétation EUR 15/2

Bancs de sables sublittoraux submergés de manière permanente. La profondeur d'eau dépasse rarement 20 mètres sous le niveau correspondant au "Chart Datum". Bancs de sable sans végétation ou avec végétation relevant des Zosteretum marinae et Cymodoceion nodosae.

Végétales :
Zostera marina, certaines espèces libres de la famille des Corallinaceae. Dans la mer Baltique aussi Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia cirrhosa et Tolypella nidifica. A Ténérife, les communautés de Halophila decipiens.

Animales :
Habitat d'hivernage très important pour de nombreuses espèces d'oiseaux, en particulier Melanitta nigra mais aussi Gavia stellata et Gavia arctica. Zones de repos des phoques. Communautés d'invertébrés du sublittoral sablonneux (p.ex. polychètes...).

Correspondances :
Classification Allemande: "040202a Sandbank der Ostsee (ständing wasserbedeckt)", : "030202a Sandbank der Nordsee (ständing wasserbedeckt)".
Classification Nordique: "4411 Zostera marina-typ", "4412 Ruppia maritima-typ".

Sur le terrain, ces bancs de sable peuvent être étroitement associés aux replats boueux et sableux (UE : 1140).

Bibliographie

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