1170 - Récifs

Reefs

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Reefs can be either biogenic concretions or of geogenic origin. They are hard compact substrata on solid and soft bottoms, which arise from the sea floor in the sublittoral and littoral zone. Reefs may support a zonation of benthic communities of algae and animal species as well as concretions and corallogenic concretions.
Clarifications:
- “Hard compact substrata” are: rocks (including soft rock, e.g. chalk), boulders and cobbles (generally >64 mm in diameter).
- “Biogenic concretions” are defined as: concretions, encrustations, corallogenic concretions and bivalve mussel beds originating from dead or living animals, i.e. biogenic hard bottoms which supply habitats for epibiotic species.
- “Geogenic origin” means: reefs formed by non biogenic substrata.
- “Arise from the sea floor’ means: the reef is topographically distinct from the surrounding seafloor.
- “Sublittoral and littoral zone” means: the reefs may extend from the sublittoral uninterrupted into the intertidal (littoral) zone or may only occur in the sublittoral zone, including deep water areas such as the bathyal.
- Such hard substrata that are covered by a thin and mobile veneer of sediment are classed as reefs if the associated biota are dependent on the hard substratum rather than the overlying sediment.
- Where an uninterrupted zonation of sublittoral and littoral communities exist, the integrity of the ecological unit should be respected in the selection of sites.
- A variety of subtidal topographic features are included in this habitat complex such as: Hydrothermal vent habitats, sea mounts, vertical rock walls, horizontal ledges, overhangs, pinnacles, gullies, ridges, sloping or flat bed rock, broken rock and boulder and cobble fields.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants:
North Atlantic including North Sea and Baltic Sea: - A large variety of red, brown and green algae (some living on the leaves of other algae).
Atlantic (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay): - Gelidium sesquipedale communities associated with brown algae (Fucus, Laminaria, Cystoseira), and red algae (Corallinaceae, Ceramiceae, Rhodomelaceae).
Central Atlantic Islands (Macaronesian Islands) and Mediterranean: - Cystoseira/Sargassum beds with a mixture of other red algae (Gelidiales, Ceramiales), brown algae (Dictyotales) and green algae (Siphonales, Siphonacladales).
Animals - reef forming species:
North Atlantic including North Sea: - Polychaetes (e.g. Sabellaria spinulosa, Sabellaria alveolata, Serpula vermicularis), bivalves (e.g. Modiolus modiolus, Mytilus sp.) and cold water corals (e.g. Lophelia pertusa).
Atlantic (Gulf of Cádiz): - Madreporarians communities: Dendrophyllia ramea community (banks), Dendrophyllia cornigera community (banks); white corals communities (banks), (Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa community (banks). Solenosmilia variabilis community (banks). Gorgonians communities: Facies of Isidella elongata and Callogorgia verticillata and Viminella flagellum; Facies of Leptogorgia spp.; Facies of Elisella paraplexauroides; Facies of Acanthogorgia spp. and Paramuricea spp. Filigrana implexa formations.
Central Atlantic Islands (Macaronesian Islands): - Warm water corals (Dendrophilia, Anthiphates), serpulids, polychaetes, sponges, hydrozoan and briozoan species together with bivalve molluscs (Sphondillus, Pinna).
Baltic Sea: - Bivalves (e.g. Modiolus modiolus, Mytilus sp., Dreissena polymorpha).
Mediterranean: - Serpulid polychaetes, bivalve molluscs (e.g. Modiolus sp. Mytilus sp. and oysters) Polychaetes (e.g. Sabellaria alveolata).
South-West Mediterranean: - Dendropoma petraeum reefs (forming boulders) or in relation with the red calcareous algae Spongites spp or Litophyllum lichenoides. Filigrana implexa formations. Gorgonians communities: Facies of holoaxonia gorgonians (Paramuricea clavata "forest", Eunicella singularis "forest"), mixed facies of gorgonians (Eunicella spp, P. clavata, E. paraplexauroides, Leptogorgia spp). Facies of Isidella elongata and Callogorgia verticillata; Facies of scleroaxonia gorgonians (Corallium rubrum). Madreporarians communities: Cladocora caespitosa reefs, Astroides calycularis facies. Madreporarians communities: Dendrophyllia ramea community (banks); Dendrophyllia cornigera community (banks); white corals communities (banks): Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa community (banks).
West Mediterranean: - Polychaetes (exclusively Sabellaria alveolata).
Animals - non reef forming:
North Atlantic including North Sea: - In general sessile invertebrates specialized on hard marine substrates such as sponges, anthozoa or cnidaria, bryozoans, polychaetes, hydroids, ascidians, molluscs and cirripedia (barnacles) as well as diverse mobile species of crustaceans and fish.
Central Atlantic Islands (Macaronesian Islands): - Gorgonians, hydrozoans, bryozoan and sponges, as well as diverse mobile species of crustacean, molluscs (cephalopoda) and fish.
Baltic Sea: - Distribution and abundance of invertebrate species settling on hard substrates are limited by the salinity gradient from west to east. Typical groups are: hydroids, ascidians, cirripedia (barnacles), bryozoans and molluscs as well as diverse mobile species of crustaceans and fish.
Mediterranean: - Cirripedia (barnacles), hydroids, bryozoans, ascidians, sponges, gorgonians and polychaetes as well as diverse mobile species of crustaceans and fish.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

11.24, 11.25

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

German classification : "Benthal der Nordsee mit Hartsubstrat (010204)", "Riffe der Nordsee (010204a)", "Benthal der Flachwasserzone der Nordsee mit Hartsubstrat, makrophytenarm (030204)", "Benthal der Flachwasserzone der Nordsee mit Hartsubstrat, makrophytenreich (030206)", "Miesmuschelbank des Sublitorals der Nordsee (030207)", "Austernbank des Sublitorals der Nordsee (030208)", "Sabellaria-Riff des Sublitorals der Nordsee (030209)", "Felswatt der Nordsee (050104)", "Miesmuschelbank des Eulitorals der Nordsee (050107)"; "Benthal der Ostsee mit Hartsubstrat (020204)", "Riffe der Ostsee (020204a)", "Benthal der Flachwasserzone der Ostsee mit Hartsubstrat, makrophytenarm (040204)", "Benthal der Flachwasserzone der Ostsee mit Kies- und Hartsubstrat, makrophytenreich (040206)", "Miesmuschelbank des Sublitorals der Ostsee (040207)", "Vegetationsreiches Windwatt mit Hartsubstrat (060203) (Ostsee)".
Barcelona Convention: "Biocenosis of supralittoral rock (I.4.1.)", "Biocenosis of the upper mediolittoral rock (II.4.1.)", "Biocenosis of the lower mediolittoral rock (II.4.2.)", "Biocenosis of infralittoral algae (III.6.1.)", "Coralligenous (IV.3.1.)", "Biocenosis of shelf-edge rock (IV.3.3 )", "Biocenosis of deep sea corals present in the Mediterranean bathyal (V.3.1.)".
The National Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland (Version 03.02): "Littoral rock and other hard substrata (biotopes beginning with LR)", "Infralittoral rock and other hard substrata (biotopes beginning with IR)", "Circalittoral rock and other hard substrata (biotopes beginning with CR)", "Littoral biogenic reefs (biotopes beginning with LBR)" and "Sublittoral biogenic reefs (biotopes beginning with SBR)".
EUNIS classification: Relevant types within "A1 Littoral rock and other hard substrata, A2.7 Littoral biogenic reefs, A3 Infralittoral rock and other hard substrata, A4 Circalittoral rock and other hard substrata, A5.6 Sublittoral biogenic reefs, A6.1 Deep-sea rock and artificial hard substrata, A6.6 Deep-sea bioherms, A6.7 Raised features of the deep-sea bed"
HELCOM classification: "Sublittoral soft rock reefs of the photic zone with little or no macrophyte vegetation (2.1.1.2.3)", "Hydrolittoral soft rock reefs with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.1.1.3.3)", "Sublittoral solid rock reefs of the photic zone with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.1.2.2.3)", "Hydrolittoral solid rock reefs with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.1.2.3.3)", "Sublittoral stony reefs of the photic zone with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.2.2.3)", "Stony reefs of the hydrolittoral zone with or without macrophyte vegetation (2.2.3.3)".
Trilateral Wadden Sea Classification (von Nordheim et al. 1996): "Sublittoral (old) blue mussel beds (03.02.07)", "Sublittoral oyster reefs (03.02.08)", "Sublittoral sabellaria reefs (03.02.09)", "Eulittoral (old) blue mussel beds (05.01.07)", "Benthic zone, stony and hard bottoms, rich in macrophytes, incl. artificial substrates (03.02.06)", "Benthic zone, stony and hard bottoms, few macrophytes (03.02.04)".
Nordic classification (Kustbiotoper i Norden, Nordiska Ministerrådet 2001): "Klippbottnar (7.7.1.3; 7.7.2.3; 7.7.3.3; 7.7.4.3; 7.7.5.3; 7.8.1.3; 7.8.2.3; 7.8.3.4; 7.8.4.3; 7.8.5.3; 7.8.6.13; 7.8.7.16)", "Sublittorale samfund på sten- och klippebund (7.9.1.2)", "Sublittorale samfund på stenbund (7.9.2.2; 7.9.3.2)".

Remarques

Reefs can be found in association with "vegetated sea cliffs" (habitats 1230, 1240 and 1250) "sandbanks which are covered by sea water all the time" (1110) and "sea caves" (habitat 8830). Reefs may also be a component part of habitat 1130 "estuaries" and habitat 1160 "large shallow inlets and bays"

Informations du Manuel d'interprétation EUR 15/2

Substrats rocheux et concrétions biogéniques sous-marins ou exposés à marée basse, s'élevant du fond marin de la zone sublittorale mais pouvant s'étendre jusqu'à la zone littorale là où la zonation des communautés animales et végétales est ininterrompue. Ces récifs offrent une stratification variée de communautés benthiques algales et animales incrustantes, concrétionnées ou coralliennes.
Dans les régions septentrionales de la Baltique, la partie supérieure de la zone d'algues filamenteuses, avec une succession annuelle très marquée, est généralement bien développée dans les rivages de faible pente. Fucus vesiculosus est submergé à une profondeur de 0,5 à - 6m dans la zone sublittorale.

Végétales :
Algues brunes (espèces du genre Fucus, Laminaria et Cystoseira), algues rouges (espèces de la famille des Corallinaceae, Ceramaceae et Rhodomelaceae), algues vertes. Autres espèces : Dictyota dichotoma, Padina pavonica, Halopteris scoparia, Laurencia obtusa, Hypnea musciformis, Dasycladus claveformis, Acetabularia mediterranea.

Animales :
Bancs de moules (sur substrat rocheux) et autres invertébrés spécialistes des substrats marins durs (éponges, bryozoaires et crustacés cirripèdes p.ex.).

Correspondances :
Classification Allemande: "010204a Riffe der Nordsee (Benthal mit Hartsybstrat, ohne Muschelbänke u. Sabellaria)", "020204a Riffe der Ostsee (Benthal mit Hartsybstrat)", "030207 Miesmuschelbank des Sublitorals der Nordsee", "030208 Austernbank des Sublitorals der Nordsee", "030209 Sabellaria-Riff des Sublitorals der Nordsee".

Dans les cas où la zonation des communautés sublittorale et littorale est interrompue, l'unité écologique devrait être respectée lors du choix des sites.

Bibliographie

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