Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests
Forests dominated by Quercus ilex or Q. rotundifolia, often, but not necessarily, calcicolous.
45.31 - Meso-Mediterranean holm-oak forests
Rich meso-Mediterranean formations, penetrating locally, mostly in ravines, into the thermo-Mediterranean zone. They are often degraded to arborescent matorral (32.11), and some of the
types listed below no longer exist in the fully developed forest state relevant to category 45; they have nevertheless been included, both to provide appropriate codes for use in 32.11, and
because restoration may be possible.
45.32 - Supra-Mediterranean holm-oak forests
Formations of the supra-Mediterranean levels, often mixed with deciduous oaks, Acer spp. or Ostrya carpinifolia.
45.33 - Aquitanian holm-oak woodland
Isolated Quercus ilex-dominated stands occurring as a facies of dunal pine-holm oak forests.
45.34 - Quercus rotundifolia woodland
Iberian forest communities formed by Q. rotundifolia. Generally, even in mature state, less tall, less luxuriant and drier than the fully developed forests that can be constituted by the closely related Q. ilex, they are, moreover, most often degraded into open woodland or even arborescent matorral. Species characteristic of the undergrowth are Arbutus unedo, Phillyrea angustifolia, Rhamnus alaternus, Pistacia terebinthus, Rubia peregrina, Jasminum fruticans, Smilax aspera, Lonicera etrusca, L. implexa.
Plants: Quercus ilex, Q. rotundifolia.
Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)