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6170 - Pelouses calcaires alpines et subalpines

Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Alpine and subalpine grasslands of base-rich soils, with Dryas octopetala, Gentiana nivalis, Gentiana campestris, Alchemilla hoppeana, Alchemilla conjuncta, Alchemilla flabellata, Anthyllis vulneraria, Astragalus alpinus, Aster alpinus, Draba aizoides, Globularia nudicaulis, Helianthemum nummularium ssp. grandiflorum, Helianthemum oelandicum ssp. alpestre, Pulsatilla alpina ssp. alpina, Phyteuma orbiculare, Astrantia major, Polygala alpestris (36.41 to 36.43) of mountain ranges such as the Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians and Scandinavia. Also included are the grasslands of the subalpine (oro-Mediterranean) and alpine levels of the highest mountains of Corsica (36.37), and the Mesophile, closed, short turfs of the subalpine and alpine levels of the southern and central Apennines, developed locally above treeline, on calcareous substrates (36.38). Can also include associated snowpatch communities (e.g. Arabidion coeruleae).
Sub-types :
36.41 - Closed calciphile alpine grasslands
Mesophile, mostly closed, vigorous, often grazed or mowed, grasslands on deep soils of the subalpine and lower alpine levels of the Alps, the Pyrenees, the mountains of the Balkan
peninsula, and, locally, of the Apennines and the Jura.
36.42 - Wind edge naked-rush swards
Meso-xerophile, relatively closed and unsculptured swards of Kobresia myosuroides (Elyna myosuroides) forming on deep, fine soils of protruding ridges and edges exposed to strong winds in the alpine and nival levels of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the Cantabrian Mountains, Scandinavian mountains and, very locally, the Abruzzi and the mountains of the Balkan peninsula, with Oxytropis jacquinii (Oxytropis montana), Oxytropis pyrenaica, Oxytropis carinthiaca, Oxytropis foucaudii, Oxytropis halleri, Antennaria carpatica, Dryas octopetala, Draba carinthiaca, Draba siliquosa, Draba fladnizensis, Draba aizoides, Gentiana tenella, Erigeron uniflorus, Dianthus glacialis, Dianthus monspessulanus ssp. sternbergii, Potentilla nivea, Saussurea alpina, Geranium argenteum, Sesleria sphaerocephala, Carex atrata, Carex brevicollis, Carex foetida, Carex capillaris, Carex nigra, Carex curvula ssp. rosae and Carex rupestris. Scandinavian Kobresia grasslands with Carex ruprestis are included.
36.43 - Calciphilous stepped and garland grasslands
Xero-thermophile, open, sculptured, stepped or garland grasslands of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the mountains of the Balkan peninsula and the Mediterranean mountains, with
very local outposts in the Jura.
36.44 - Alpine heavy metal communities: included in habitat 6130 'Calaminarian grasslands (Violetalia calaminariae)',
36.37 - Oro-Corsican grasslands
Grasslands of the subalpine (oro-Mediterranean) and alpine levels of the highest mountains of Corsica.
36.38 - Oro-Apennine closed grasslands
Mesophile, closed, short turfs of the subalpine and alpine levels of the southern and central Apennines, developed locally above treeline, on calcareous substrates.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants: 36.41 to 36.43 - Dryas octopetala, Gentiana nivalis, Gentiana campestris, Alchemilla hoppeana, Alchemilla conjuncta, Alchemilla flabellata, Anthyllis vulneraria, Astragalus alpinus, Aster alpinus, Draba aizoides, Globularia nudicaulis, Helianthemum nummularium ssp. grandiflorum, Helianthemum oelandicum ssp. alpestre, Pulsatilla alpina ssp. alpina, Phyteuma orbiculare, Astrantia major, Polygala alpestris; 36.37 - Plantago subulata ssp. insularis, Sagina pilifera, Armeria multiceps, Paronychia polygonifolia, Bellardiochloa violacea, Phleum brachysrachyum, Geum montanum, Sibbaldia procumbens, Veronica alpina; 36.38 - Festuca violacea ssp. macrathera, Trifolium thalii.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

36.12, 36.41 to 36.43, 36.37, 36.38

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

United Kingdom classification: ‘CG12 Festuca ovina-Alchemilla alpina-Silene acaulis dwarf-herb heath', ‘CG13 Dryas octopetala-Carex flacca heath', ‘CG14 Dryas octopetala-Silene acaulis ledge community'.
Nordic classification: ‘123 Lågörtvegetation på rikt/kalkrikt underlag'.
Romanian classification: ‘R3401-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de Asperula capitata si Sesleria rigida', ‘R3402-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de Helictotrichon decorum', ‘R3601-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de rogoz pitic (Kobresia myosuroides) si Oxytropis carpatica', ‘R3605-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de paius cu colti (Festuca versicolor) si Sesleria rigida ssp. haynaldiana', ‘R3606-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de paius de stânci (Festuca saxatilis) ‘, ‘R3607-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de Festuca amethystina si Dianthus tenuifolius', ‘R3611- Pajisti sud-est carpatice de coada iepurelui (Sesleria rigida ssp. haynaldiana) si rogoz (Carex sempervirens) ‘, ‘R3612-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de rogoz (Carex sempervirens) si coarna mare (Sesleria bielzii) ‘, ‘R3613-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de Carduus kerneri, Festuca carpatica si Trisetum fuscum', ‘R3614-Pajisti sud-est carpatice de Festuca xanthina'

Bibliographie

Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)

Bringer, K.-G. (1961). Den lågalpina Dryas-hedens differentiering och ståndortsekologi inom Torneträsk-området. 1-2. Sven. Bot. Tidskr. 55:349-375, 551-584.

Doniţă, N., Popescu, A., Paucă-Comănescu, M., Mihăilescu, S., Biriş, I.A. (2005). Habitatele din România. Edit. Tehnică Silvică, Bucureşti, 500 p. (ISBN 973-96001-4-X).