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7230 - Tourbières basses alcalines

Alkaline fens

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Wetlands mostly or largely occupied by peat- or tufa-producing small sedge and brown moss communities developed on soils permanently waterlogged, with a soligenous or topogenous base- rich, often calcareous water supply, and with the water table at, or slightly above or below, the substratum. Peat formation, when it occurs, is infra-aquatic. Calciphile small sedges and other Cyperaceae usually dominate the mire communities, which belong to the Caricion davallianae, characterised by a usually prominent ‘brown moss’ carpet formed by Campylium stellatum, Drepanocladus intermedius, D. revolvens, Cratoneuron commutatum, Acrocladium cuspidatum, Ctenidium molluscum, Fissidens adianthoides, Bryum pseudotriquetrum and others, a grasslike growth of Schoenus nigricans, S. ferrugineus, Eriophorum latifolium, Carex davalliana, C. flava, C. lepidocarpa, C. hostiana, C. panicea, Juncus subnodulosus, Scirpus cespitosus, Eleocharis quinqueflora, and a very rich herbaceous flora including Tofieldia calyculata, Dactylorhiza incarnata, D. traunsteineri, D. traunsteinerioides, D. russowii, D. majalis ssp.brevifolia, D. cruenta, #Liparis loeselii, Herminium monorchis, Epipactis palustris, Pinguicula vulgaris, Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum, Primula farinosa, Swertia perennis. Wet grasslands (Molinietalia caerulaea, e.g. Juncetum subnodulosi & Cirsietum rivularis, 37), tall sedge beds (Magnocaricion, 53.2), reed formations (Phragmition, 53.1), fen sedge beds (Cladietum mariscae, 53.3), may form part of the fen system, with communities related to transition mires (54.5, 54.6) and amphibious or aquatic vegetation (22.3, 22.4) or spring communities (54.1) developing in depressions. The sub- units below, which can, alone or in combination, and together with codes selected from the categories just mentioned, describe the composition of the fen, are understood to include the mire communities sensu stricto (Caricion davallianae), their transition to the Molinion, and assemblages that, although they may be phytosociologically referable to alkaline Molinion associations, contain a large representation of the Caricion davallianae species listed, in addition to being integrated in the fen system; this somewhat parallels the definition of an integrated class Molinio-Caricetalia davallianae in Rameau et al., 1989. Outside of rich fen systems, fen communities can occur as small areas in dune slack systems (16.3), in transition mires (54.5), in wet grasslands (37), on tufa cones (54.121) and in a few other situations. The codes below can be used, in conjunction with the relevant principal code, to signal their presence. Rich fens are exceptionally endowed with spectacular, specialised, strictly restricted species. They are among the habitats that have undergone the most serious decline. They are essentially extinct in several regions and gravely endangered in most.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants: Schoenus nigricans, S. ferrugineus, Carex spp., Eriophorum latifolium, Cinclidium stygium, Tomentypnum nitens.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

54.2

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

Nordic classification : 34 Rikkärrvegetation-typ', ‘352 Rik källkärrvegetation'.

Bibliographie

Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)

Sjörs, H. (1948). Myrvegetation i Bergslagen. Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 21:1-299.