Ocean and seas, marine communities
Oceanic and continental shelf waters of the world ocean and its connected seas, their associated open-water and bottom communities, and marine vascular vegetation beds; marine communities of the littoral zone and of coastal lagoons. Included within the Palaearctic realm are the waters of the Northeast Atlantic, of the northern part of the West African Atlantic, south to the latitude of the Cape Verde Islands, of the Arabian Sea and of the eastern and northern Red Sea, of the Mediterranean, of the Baltic Sea, of the Arctic Ocean east of Greenland and west of the Bering Strait, and of the northwest Pacific (Marine Region as used by the IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, Kelleher & al., 1995: ii).
Devillers P., Devillers-Terschuren J. & Vander Linden C., 2001. PHYSIS Palaearctic Habitat Classification Database. Updated to 10 December 2001. Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles. (Source)
Molinier and Picard, 1959; Nicholson, 1977; Nelson, 1980; Augier, 1982, 1985; Sorokin,1983; Hood, 1983; Kullenberg, 1983; Lofgren, 1984; Mitchell, 1987; Harmelin & al., 1987; Fiala-Médione & al., 1987; Wood, 1988; Barnes and Hughes, 1988; Britton and Morton, 1989; Lalli and Parsons, 1995; Schembri, 1999a.