4090 - Landes oroméditerranéennes endémiques à Genêts épineux

Endemic oro-Mediterranean heaths with gorse

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Primary cushion heaths of the high, dry mountains of the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions, with low, cushion-forming, often spiny shrubs, such as Acantholimon, Astragalus, Erinacea, Vella, Bupleurum, Ptilotrichum, Genista, Echinospartum, Anthyllis and various composites and labiates; secondary, zoogenic cushion heaths of the same regions, either downslope extensions of the high-altitude formations, and dominated by the same species, or specifically montane or steppic, often Genista-dominated in the Mediterranean region. Excluded are cushion- heaths of thermo-Mediterranean lowlands (33) and of deserts and semideserts (7).
Sub-types :
31.71 - Pyrenean hedgehog-heaths. Junipero-Genistetum horridae.
Echinospartum horridum formations of dry slopes of the supra-Mediterranean zone of the southern Pyrenees; accompanying the dense, spiny cushions are Juniperus hemisphaerica, Buxus sempervirens, Ononis fruticosa, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ssp. crassifolia and Pinus sylvestris.
31.72 - Cordilleran hedgehog-heaths. Cytiso oromediterranei-Echinospartetum barnadesii,
Echinosparto pulviniformis-Cytisetum oromediterranei, Teucrii salviastri-Echinospartetum pulviniformis, Genisto hystricis-Echinospartetum lusitanici
Formations of the Cordillera Central and adjacent areas dominated by diverse forms of Echinospartum.
31.73 - Nevadan hedgehog-heaths. Erinacetalia p., Lavandulo-Genistion boissieri p.
Highly developed hedgehog formations of the Sierra Nevada with Erinacea anthyllis, Vella spinosa, Astragalus sempervirens ssp. nevadensis, A. granatensis ssp. granatensis (A. boissieri),
Ptilotrichum spinosum, Bupleurum spinosum, Genista baetica. Associated dwarf suffrutescent formations of high slopes and crests.
31.74 - Franco-Iberian hedgehog-heaths
Oro-Mediterranean and montane hedgehog-heaths of other Iberian ranges and of southern France.
31.75 - Cyrno-Sardian hedgehog-heaths. Carici-Genistetalia (Carlinetalia macrocephalae)
Expanses of small, compact bushes with Astragalus sirinicus ssp. genargenteus, Rosa seraphini, Anthyllis hermanniae, Thymus herba-barona, Cerastium boissieri, Genista salzmannii, G.
corsica, Berberis aetnensis, Prunus prostrata and Daphne oleoides, of Sardinian and Corsican mountains.
31.76 - Mount Etna hedgehog-heaths. Astragaletum siculi
Lava-colonising formations with cushions of Astragalus granatensis ssp. siculus, Berberis aetnensis, Juniperus hemisphaerica, Genista aetnensis, Adenocarpus bivonae, Viola aethnensis.
31.77 - Madonie and Apennine hedgehog-heaths
Hedgehog-heaths formed by Astragalus spp. or Genista spp., of the mountains of the southern Italian peninsula and Sicily, except Etna.
31.78 - Helleno-Balkanic sylvatic Astragalus hedgehog-heaths
Hedgehog-heaths occupying situations peripheral to the main range of the alti- and oro-Mediterranean hedgehog-heath communities of high Hellenic mountains (31.79 and 31.7A), mostly dominated by Astragalus angustifolius, characteristic, in particular, of zoogenous clearings within the forest belt of southern Greek mountains and of regions of irradiation of Mediterranean communities within the hills and mountains of the Moesian zone.
31.79 - Hellenic oro-Mediterranean hedgehog-heaths. Daphno-Festucetea: Eryngio-Bromion p.
Hedgehog-heaths developed on relatively humus-rich rendziniform soils at or above treeline, in the 1700-2200 m altitudinal range of high Greek mountains; hedgehog-heath facies of
associated grasslands; similar, impoverished formations descending into the forest belts of the same mountains, with the exception of those of the Peloponnese, where they are replaced by
distinctive formations, listed under 31.78.

Description (suite)

31.7A - Hellenic alti-Mediterranean hedgehog-heaths. Daphno-Festucetea: Astragalo-Seslerion
Shrubby formations of the high mountains of the Peloponnese, of the southern mainland Greek mountains and of the Thessalian Olympus system, colonising the altitudinal range immediately above that occupied by the communities of 31.79, as well as stony slopes with shallow soil, loose screes and humus-deficient soils within the main 1700-2200 m range of these communities. Included are true spiny hedgehog-heaths, cushiony formations of dwarf suffrutescents and bush-dominated facies of stripped grasslands. Astragalus angustifolius, Acantholimon androsaceum, Astragalus lacteus, Convolvulus cochlearis, Rindera graeca, Aster alpinus, Globularia stygia, Minuartia stellata, Erysimum pusillum, Thymus teucrioides, Alyssum kionae, Paronychia kapela, Thymus hirsutus, Anthyllis aurea, Achillea ageratifolia, Sideritis scardica, Linum flavum, Thymus boissieri, Sesleria caerulans are characteristic.
31.7B - Cretan hedgehog-heaths. Saturejetea spinosae
Hedgehog-heaths of high mountains of Crete, in the 1500-2500 m altitudinal range, with Astragalus creticus ssp. creticus, A. angustifolius, Acantholimon androsaceum, Atraphaxis billardieri, Berberis cretica, Chamaecytisus creticus, Daphne oleoides, Prunus prostrata, Euphorbia acanthothamnos, Verbascum spinosum, Sideritis syriaca, Satureja spinosa, Asperula idaea, Rhamnus prunifolius, Pimpinella tragium, Acinos alpinus.
31.7C - Aegean summital hedgehog-heaths
Isolated, endemic-rich, mostly summital hedgehog-heaths of calcareous mountains of Aegean islands and Mount Athos.
31.7D - Southern Hellenic Genista acanthoclada hedgehog-heaths
Formations dominated by hemispherical shrubs of Genista acanthoclada of the middle levels (about 800 - 1200 m) of mountains and plateaux of the Peloponnese.
31.7E - Astragalus sempervirens hedgehog-heaths
Astragalus sempervirens ssp. sempervirens, ssp. muticus, ssp. cephalonicus formations of the southern Alps, the eastern Pyrenees, Iberia, the Apennines and Greece, transitional between the alpine and sub-alpine heaths of 31.4 and the true Mediterranean hedgehog-heaths of 31.7.
31.7F - Canarian cushion-heaths. Spartocytision nubigeni
Open formations dominated by broom-like plants of the montane zone (above 1900 m) of the Canary Islands, with many endemic species.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants: 31.71 - Echinospartum horridum; 31.72 - Echinospartum lusitanicum ssp. barnadesii, E. ibericum ssp. pulviniformis; 31.73 - Erinacea anthyllis, Vella spinosa, Astragalus sempervirens ssp. nevadensis, A. granatensis ssp. granatensis (A. boissieri), Ptilotrichum spinosum, Bupleurum spinosum, Genista baetica; 31.74 - Erinacea anthyllis, Vella spinosa, Andryala agardhii, Convolvulus boissieri, Hippocrepis squamata ssp. eriocarpa, Pterocephalus spathulatus, Thymus granatensis; 31.75 - Astragalus sirinicus ssp. genargenteus, Rosa seraphini, Anthyllis hermanniae, Thymus herba-barona, Cerastium boissieri, Genista salzmannii, G. corsica, Berberis aetnensis, Prunus prostrata, Daphne oleoides; 31.76 - Astragalus granatensis ssp. siculus, Berberis aetnensis, Juniperus hemisphaerica, Genista aetnensis, Adenocarpus bivonae, Viola aethnensis;
31.77 - Astragalus granatensis ssp. nebrodensis, A. parnassi ssp. calabrus, A. sirinicus ssp. sirinicus, Genista cupanii, G. sylvestris ssp. dalmatica; 31.78 - Astragalus angustifolius; 31.79 - Astragalus creticus ssp. rumelicus, A. parnassi, A. angustifolius; 31.7A - Astragalus angustifolius, Minuartia stellata; 31.7B - Astragalus creticus ssp. creticus, A. angustifolius, Chamaecytisus creticus; 31.7C - Astragalus creticus var. samius, A. pilodes, A. trojanus var. chius, A. parnassi, A. p. var. samothracius, A. monachorum; 31.7D - Genista acanthoclada; 31.7E - Astragalus sempervirens ssp. sempervirens, A. s. ssp. muticus, A. s. ssp. cephalonicus; 31.7F - Spartocytisus supranubius, Adenocarpus viscosus var. spartioides.

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

31.7

Bibliographie

Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)