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6210 - Pelouses sèches semi-naturelles et faciès d'embuissonnement sur calcaires (Festuco-Brometalia) (* sites d'orchidées remarquables)

Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia) (* important orchid sites)

Liste hiérarchisée et descriptifs des habitats d'intérêt communautaire de la directive "Habitats"

Description

Dry to semi-dry calcareous grasslands of the Festuco-Brometea. This habitat is formed on the one hand by steppic or subcontinental grasslands (Festucetalia valesiacae) and, on the other, by the grasslands of more oceanic and sub-Mediterranean regions (Brometalia erecti); in the latter case, a distinction is made between primary Xerobromion grasslands and secondary (semi-natural) Mesobromion grasslands with Bromus erectus; the latter are characterised by their rich orchid flora. Abandonment results in thermophile scrub with an intermediate stage of thermophile fringe vegetation (Trifolio-Geranietea).
Important orchid sites should be interpreted as sites that are important on the basis of one or more of the following three criteria:
(a) the site hosts a rich suite of orchid species
(b) the site hosts an important population of at least one orchid species considered not very common on the national territory
(c) the site hosts one or several orchid species considered to be rare, very rare or exceptional on the national territory.

Espèces caractéristiques

Plants: Mesobromion - Anthyllis vulneraria, Arabis hirsuta, Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus inermis, Campanula glomerata, Carex caryophyllea, Carlina vulgaris, Centaurea scabiosa, Dianthus carthusianorum, Eryngium campestre, Koeleria pyramidata, Leontodon hispidus, Medicago sativa ssp. falcata, Ophrys apifera, O. insectifera, Orchis mascula, O. militaris, O. morio, O. purpurea, O. ustulata, O. mascula, Polygala comosa, Primula veris, Sanguisorba minor, Scabiosa columbaria, Veronica prostrata, V. teucrium. Xerobromion - Bromus erectus, Fumana procumbens, Globularia elongata, Hippocrepis comosa. Festucetalia valesiacae: Adonis vernalis, Euphorbia seguierana, Festuca valesiaca, Silene otites, Stipa capillata, S. joannis.
Animals: Papilio machaon, Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera); Libelloides spp., Mantis religiosa (Neuroptera).

Correspondances avec la classification du Paléarctique

34.31 to 34.34

Correspondances avec d'autres classifications

United Kingdom classification : ‘CG1 Festuca ovina-Carlina vulgaris grassland', ‘CG2 Festuca ovina-Avenula pratensis grassland', ‘CG3 Bromus erectus grassland', CG4 Brachypodium pinnatum grassland', ‘CG5 Bromus erectus-Brachypodium pinnatum grassland', ‘CG6 Avenula pubescens grassland', ‘ CG7 Festuca ovina-Hieracium pilosella-Thymus praecox/pulegioides grassland', ‘CG8 Sesleria albicans-Scabiosa columbaria grassland', ‘CG9 Sesleria albicans-Galium sterneri grassland'.
In France the following sub-types are found: 34.31 - Subcontinental (Euro-Siberian and eastern) grasslands of the inner Alps stretching perhaps to Alsace (Stipo capillatae-Festucenea valesiacae Gaultier 89 prov.); 34.32 - Sub-Atlantic xerocline calcicolous grasslands [Mesobromenalia erecti Royer 87 (IX 212: Brometalia erecti Br-Bl. 36)]; 34.33 - Sub-Atlantic xerophile calcicolous grasslands (Xerobromenalia erecti Royer 87); 34.34 - Central European calcareo-siliceous grasslands generally established on hyperxerothermophile sands, partly denuded (Koelerio macranthae-Phleion phloeidis Korneck 74 (Koelerio macranthae-Phleenalia phloeidis (Korneck 74) Royer 87.
German classification: ‘340101 submediterraner Trockenrasen auf karbonatischem Unterground', ‘34020301 subkontinentaler Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden, gemäht', ‘34020102 submediterraner Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden, beweidet Mähweide', ‘34020103 submediterraner Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden, brachgefallen', ‘340103 subkontinentaler Trockenrasen auf karbonatischem Untergrund', ‘34020101 submediterraner Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden, gemäht', ‘34020302 subkontinentaler Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden, beweidet Mähweide', ‘34020303 subkontinentaler Halbtrockenrasen auf karbonatischem Boden, brachgefallen', ‘3403 natürlicher Steppenrasen (kontinental, auf tiefgründigem Boden)'.
Nordic classification: Avenula pratensis-Artemisia oelandica-variant of ‘5213 Avenula pratensis- Fragaria viridis-Filipendula vulgaris-typ'

Remarques

Often in association with scrubland and thermophile forests and with dry pioneer Sedum meadows (Sedo-Scleranthea).

Bibliographie

Conseil de l'Union européenne, 2013. Directive 2013/17/UE du Conseil du 13 mai 2013 portant adaptation de certaines directives dans le domaine de l'environnement, du fait de l'adhésion de la République de Croatie. Annexes. Partie B Protection de la nature. Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, L 158 du 10/06/2013, p. : 195-203. (Source)

Albertsson, N. (1950). Das grosse südliche Alvar der Insel Öland. Eine Pflanzensoziologische Übersicht. Sven. Bot. Tidskr. 44:269-331.